- Is a 86 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
Is ideal for patients with a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of dilated cardiomyopathy.
The Blueprint Genetics Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Panel (test code CA2201):
Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Panel
|I42.0||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)|
- Blood (min. 1ml) in an EDTA tube
- Extracted DNA, min. 2 μg in TE buffer or equivalent
- Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit/OGD-500 or OG-575 & OGD-575)
Label the sample tube with your patient's name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.
Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Read more about our sample requirements here.
DCM is one of the major subtypes of cardiomyopathies. It is typically associated with significant dilation of the cardiac chambers (especially the left ventricle), thinning of the myocardial wall and systolic dysfunction. It is a common cause for heart failure, sudden cardiac death and the most common reason for heart transplantation. During the past decade there have been major breakthroughs in the understanding of the molecular genetics of DCM. Similar to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, genetic diagnostics is becoming standard in the diagnostic work-up of patients suffering from non-ischemic DCM. Studies from large patient and family cohorts have revealed that classical DCM with end stage heart failure and severe symptoms represents the tip of the iceberg in this disorder. The phenotypic spectrum of DCM is broadening as we are now identifying individuals and family members with DCM mutations but who present with less severe cardiac phenotypes. With the increased knowledge of both the genetic causes of the disease and the broadening phenotype, it is estimated that DCM prevalence may be as high as 1:250.
Genes in the Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Panel and their clinical significance
|ABCC9||Atrial fibrillation, Cantu syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||27||46|
|ACTC1||Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Atrial septal defect, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||23||63|
|ACTN2||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||11||44|
|APOA1||Amyloidosis, systemic nonneuronopathic, Hypoalphalipoproteinemia||AD/AR||28||71|
|BAG3||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Myopathy, myofibrillar||AD||39||62|
|CASZ1||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Ventricular septal defect||AD||3||2|
|CHRM2||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||1|
|DES||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Myopathy, myofibrillar, Scapuloperoneal syndrome, neurogenic, Kaeser type||AD/AR||64||124|
|DMD||Becker muscular dystrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||XL||832||3915|
|DOLK||Congenital disorder of glycosylation||AR||8||11|
|DPM3||Congenital disorder of glycosylation, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy||AR||3||2|
|DSC2||Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia||AD/AR||32||87|
|DSG2||Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||44||129|
|DSP||Cardiomyopathy, dilated, with wooly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, Cardiomyopathy, dilated, with wooly hair and keratoderma, Keratosis palmoplantaris striata II, Epidermolysis bullosa, lethal acantholytic||AD/AR||177||296|
|DYSF||Miyoshi muscular dystrophy, Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, Myopathy, distal, with anterior tibial onset||AR||244||529|
|EEF1A2||Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, Mental retardation||AD||17||12|
|EMD||Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy||XL||48||113|
|ETFA||Glutaric aciduria, Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency||AR||8||29|
|ETFB||Glutaric aciduria, Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency||AR||6||15|
|ETFDH||Glutaric aciduria, Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency||AR||43||190|
|FBXO32||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||2|
|FHOD3||Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic||AD||1|
|FKTN||Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (limb-girdle)||AD/AR||45||58|
|FOXD4*||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||1|
|GATA4*||Tetralogy of Fallot, Atrioventricular septal defect, Testicular anomalies with or without congenital heart disease, Ventricular septal defect, Atrial septal defect||AD||37||140|
|GATA6||Heart defects, congenital, and other congenital anomalies, Atrial septal defect 9, atrioventricular septal defect 5, Persistent truncus arteriosus, Tetralogy of Fallot||AD||16||82|
|GBE1||Glycogen storage disease||AR||36||70|
|GLB1||GM1-gangliosidosis, Mucopolysaccharidosis (Morquio syndrome)||AR||90||220|
|GSK3B||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||2|
|HAND1||Congenital heart defects, Dilated cardiomyopathy||AD||9|
|HCN4||Sick sinus syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC)||AD||8||34|
|ILK||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||10|
|JPH2||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)||AD||3||13|
|JUP||Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Naxos disease||AD/AR||8||46|
|KLHL24||Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, generalized, with scarring and hair loss, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)||AD/AR||5||5|
|LDB3||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Myopathy, myofibrillar||AD||9||14|
|LEMD2||Cataract 46, juvenile onset, Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AR||1||1|
|LMNA||Heart-hand syndrome, Slovenian, Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, Muscular dystrophy, congenital, LMNA-related, Lipodystrophy (Dunnigan), Emery-Dreiffus muscular dystrophy, Malouf syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A, Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford type||AD/AR||250||564|
|LMOD2||Familial dilated cardiomyopathy||AR|
|LRRC10||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||4|
|MLYCD||Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency||AR||14||38|
|MYBPC3||Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||482||1048|
|MYBPHL||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||3|
|MYH6||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Atrial septal defect 3||AD||14||123|
|MYH7||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Myopathy, myosin storage, Myopathy, distal, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||305||986|
|MYL4||Atrial fibrillation, familial, 18||AD||2||2|
|NKX2-5||Conotruncal heart malformations, Hypothyroidism, congenital nongoitrous,, Atrial septal defect, Ventricular septal defect 3, Conotruncal heart malformations, variable, Tetralogy of Fallot||AD||45||108|
|NRAP||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AR||1||6|
|PKP2#*||Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia||AD||150||289|
|PLEKHM2||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), left ventricular noncompaction||AR||1||1|
|PLN||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||8||30|
|PPCS||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AR||4|
|PRDM16||Left ventricular noncompaction, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||17||20|
|QRSL1||Mitochondrial multisystemic disorder||AR||4||2|
|RAF1||LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||45||53|
|RBCK1||Polyglucosan body myopathy||AR||11||14|
|RBM20||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||19||47|
|RMND1*||Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency||AR||17||15|
|SCN5A||Heart block, nonprogressive, Heart block, progressive, Long QT syndrome, Ventricular fibrillation, Atrial fibrillation, Sick sinus syndrome, Brugada syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR/Digenic||234||899|
|SPEG||Centronuclear myopathy 5||AR||5||11|
|TAB2||Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2||AD||13||31|
|TAZ||3-Methylglutaconic aciduria, (Barth syndrome)||XL||45||158|
|TBX20*||Atrial septal defect 4||AD||4||28|
|TCAP||Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||12||28|
|TMEM43||Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy||AD||4||24|
|TNNC1||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||9||24|
|TNNI3||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD/AR||56||129|
|TNNI3K||Cardiac conduction disease with or without dilated cardiomyopathy||AD||1||3|
|TNNT2||Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||61||148|
|TOR1AIP1||Muscular dystrophy with progressive weakness, distal contractures and rigid spine||AD/AR||3||5|
|TPM1||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||34||98|
|TTN*||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Tibial muscular dystrophy, Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure, Myopathy, early-onset, with fatal cardiomyopathy (Salih myopathy), Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, type 2J||AD||818||327|
|TTR||Dystransthyretinemic hyperthyroxinemia, Amyloidosis, hereditary, transthyretin-related||AD||52||148|
|VCL||Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM)||AD||8||30|
* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.
# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads).
The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)
Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.
Non-coding variants covered by Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) Panel
|Gene||Genomic location HG19||HGVS||RefSeq||RS-number|
Added and removed genes from the panel
|Genes added||Genes removed|
|CASZ1 CHRM2 DPM3 FHOD3 GATA4 GATC GSK3B ILK KLHL24 LDB3 LEMD2 LMOD2 NKX2-5 NRAP PPCS QRSL1 TMEM43|
- CAP and ISO-15189 accredited laboratory
- CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
- Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
- Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
- Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
- Our publicly available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
- ~2,000 non-coding disease causing variants in our clinical grade NGS assay for panels (please see below ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’)
- Our rigorous variant classification scheme
- Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
- Our comprehensive clinical statements
The following exons are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads: PCCB (NM_001178014:4), PKP2 (NM_001254727:6). Genes with suboptimal coverage in our assay are marked with number sign (#) and genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. Gene is considered to have suboptimal coverage when >90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are not covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).
- Complex inversions
- Gene conversions
- Balanced translocations
- Mitochondrial DNA variants
- Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
- Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).
- Low level mosaicism (variant with a minor allele fraction of 14.6% is detected with 90% probability)
- Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
- Indels larger than 50bp
- Single exon deletions or duplications
- Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments
The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.
For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.
The Blueprint Genetics dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) panel covers classical genes associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and cardioegaly. The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.
Our panels are sliced from our high-quality whole exome sequencing data. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for different types of alterations at the whole exome level (Table).
Assays have been validated for different starting materials including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (no FFPE), saliva and dry blood spots (filter card) and all provide high-quality results. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find a molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be a cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive of a specific mutation type.
Performance of Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay for panels.
|Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN)||Specificity %|
|Single nucleotide variants||99.89% (99,153/99,266)||>99.9999|
|Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis|
|1-10 bps||96.9% (7,563/7,806)||>99.9999|
|11-50 bps||99.13% (2,524/2,546)||>99.9999|
|Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)|
|1 exon level deletion (heterozygous)||100% (20/20)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (homozygous)||100% (5/5)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (25/25)||NA|
|2-7 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (44/44)||NA|
|1-9 exon level duplication (het or homo)||75% (6/8)||NA|
|Simulated CNV detection|
|5 exons level deletion/duplication||98.7%||100.00%|
|Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))|
|Size range (0.1-47 Mb)||100% (37/37)|
|The performance presented above reached by WES with the following coverage metrics|
|Mean sequencing depth at exome level||143X|
|Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%)||99.86%|
The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding and regulatory variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases including, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, ordering providers have access to the details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with <20X sequencing depth if applicable. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where ordering providers can easily visualize the crucial details of the analysis process.
We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.
Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.
The final step in the analysis is orthogonal confirmation. Sequence variants classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are confirmed using bi-directional Sanger sequencing when they do not meet our stringent NGS quality metrics for a true positive call. Reported heterozygous and homo/hemizygous copy number variations with a size <10 and <3 target exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen and confirmed less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.
Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references, abstracts and variant databases used to help ordering providers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.
Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification. We do not recommend using variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for family member risk stratification or patient management. Genetic counseling is recommended.
Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Our internal database and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes increases with every case analyzed. Our laboratory is therefore well-positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.