Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Panel

Last modified: Jun 12, 2018


  • Is a 38 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
  • Is ideal for patients who fulfill clinical diagnostic criteria for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or have significant LVH without a history of high blood pressure or aortic stenosis .

Analysis methods

  • PLUS
  • SEQ


3-4 weeks

Number of genes


Test code


CPT codes

SEQ 81439
DEL/DUP 81479


The Blueprint Genetics Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Panel (test code CA1901):

  • Is a 38 gene panel that includes assessment of selected non-coding disease-causing variants
  • Is available as PLUS analysis (sequencing analysis and deletion/duplication analysis), sequencing analysis only or deletion/duplication analysis only

ICD codes

Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Panel

ICD-10 Disease
I42.5 RCM
I42.1 Obstructive HCM
I42.2 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)

Sample Requirements

  • EDTA blood, min. 1 ml
  • Purified DNA, min. 3μg
  • Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit)

Label the sample tube with your patient’s name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.

Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common human monogenic disorders with prevalence estimates of 1:500, predicting approximately 600,000 persons with HCM in the US alone. It is also the most common cause for sudden cardiac death among young adults. HCM is generally defined by the development of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and commonly caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomere genes. In HCM, LVH occurs in a non-dilated ventricle in the absence of other cardiac or systemic disease capable of producing the observed abnormal LV wall thickness. Systemic diseases that can mimic HCM are for example pressure overload due to long-standing hypertension or aortic stenosis, or storage/infiltrative disorders (Fabry disease, Pompe disease) or certain syndromes (Noonan spectrum diseases, Danon disease). The clinical manifestations of HCM range from asymptomatic LVH to progressive heart failure to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Atrial fibrillation and atrioventricular conduction abnormalities can also manifest. HCM is the most common cause of sudden cardiac death under age of 30 and also the most common cause for SCD in athletes. SCD can be the first clinical manifestation even in patients with no clear LVH. Symptoms can vary from individual to individual even within the same family. Common symptoms include shortness of breath (particularly during exercise), chest pain, palpitations, orthostasis, presyncope, and syncope. Most often the LVH of HCM becomes apparent during adolescence or young adulthood, although it may also develop later in life, in infancy, or in childhood.

Genes in the Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Panel and their clinical significance

Gene Associated phenotypes Inheritance ClinVar HGMD
ABCC9 Atrial fibrillation, Cantu syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 25 40
ACAD9 Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family, deficiency AR 25 44
ACADVL Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain, deficiency AR 94 270
ACTA1 Myopathy AD/AR 61 206
ACTC1 Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Atrial septal defect, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 23 60
ACTN2 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 10 41
AGK* Sengers syndrome, Cataract 38 AR 18 27
AGL Glycogen storage disease AR 90 243
ALPK3 Pediatric cardiomyopathy AR 9 5
APOA1 Amyloidosis, systemic nonneuronopathic, Hypoalphalipoproteinemia AD/AR 27 69
BAG3 Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Myopathy, myofibrillar AD 36 60
BRAF* LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome AD 135 65
CBL Noonan syndrome-like disorder with or without juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia AD 23 38
COX15 Leigh syndrome, Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency AR 7 5
CSRP3 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 5 29
ELAC2 Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 17 AR 11 15
EPG5 Vici syndrome AR 29 50
FHL1* Myopathy with postural muscle atrophy, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy, Reducing bod myopathy XL 22 60
FLNC* Myopathy AD 29 101
FXN* Friedreich ataxia AR 12 63
GAA Glycogen storage disease AR 147 558
GLA Fabry disease XL 215 919
HRAS Costello syndrome, Congenital myopathy with excess of muscle spindles AD 41 29
JPH2 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) AD 3 12
LAMP2 Danon disease XL 57 97
MYBPC3 Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 460 1022
MYH7 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Myopathy, myosin storage, Myopathy, distal, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 285 950
MYL2 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Infantile type I muscle fibre disease and cardiomyopathy AD 20 66
MYL3 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) AD/AR 13 40
NDUFAF2 Mitochondrial complex I deficiency, Leigh syndrome AR 10 8
PRKAG2# Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, Glycogen storage disease of heart, lethal congenital AD 17 56
RAF1 LEOPARD syndrome, Noonan syndrome, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 44 48
SLC25A4 Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome AD/AR 12 15
SOS1 Noonan syndrome AD 45 67
TNNI3 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD/AR 54 127
TNNT2 Left ventricular noncompaction, Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Cardiomyopathy, restrictive, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 57 140
TPM1 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) AD 33 95
TTR Dystransthyretinemic hyperthyroxinemia, Amyloidosis, hereditary, transthyretin-related AD 49 146

* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.

# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads).

The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)

Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.

Non-coding variants covered by the panel

Gene Genomic location HG19 HGVS RefSeq RS-number
ACADVL Chr17:7126948 c.1252-15A>G NM_001270447.1 rs765390290
ACADVL Chr17:7125485 c.822-11T>G NM_001270447.1
ACADVL Chr17:7125469 c.822-27C>T NM_001270447.1 rs374911841
ACTC1 Chr15:35080829 c.*1784T>C NM_005159.4
AGL Chr1:100381954 c.4260-12A>G NM_000028.2 rs369973784
APOA1 Chr11:116708299 c.-21+22G>A NM_000039.1
APOA1 Chr11:116708365 c.-65A>C NM_000039.1
GAA Chr17:78078369 c.-17C>T NM_000152.3
GAA Chr17:78078341 c.-32-13T>A NM_000152.3
GAA Chr17:78078341 c.-32-13T>G NM_000152.3 rs386834236
GAA Chr17:78078352 c.-32-2A>G NM_000152.3
GAA Chr17:78078351 c.-32-3C>A NM_000152.3
GAA Chr17:78078351 c.-32-3C>A/G NM_000152.3
GAA Chr17:78082266 c.1076-22T>G NM_000152.3 rs762260678
GAA Chr17:78092432 c.2647-20T>G NM_000152.3
GLA ChrX:100656225 c.547+395G>C NM_000169.2
GLA ChrX:100653945 c.640-11T>A NM_000169.2
GLA ChrX:100654735 c.640-801G>A NM_000169.2 rs199473684
GLA ChrX:100654793 c.640-859C>T NM_000169.2 rs869312374
LAMP2 ChrX:119604078 c.-1054A>C NM_001122606.1
MYBPC3 Chr11:47353394 c.*26+2T>C NM_000256.3
MYBPC3 Chr11:47364832 c.1224-19G>A NM_000256.3 rs587776699
MYBPC3 Chr11:47364814 c.1224-1G>T NM_000256.3 rs767405420
MYBPC3 Chr11:47364815 c.1224-2A>G NM_000256.3 rs397515891
MYBPC3 Chr11:47364709 c.1227-13G>A NM_000256.3 rs397515893
MYBPC3 Chr11:47360310 c.2149-80G>A NM_000256.3
MYBPC3 Chr11:47359371 c.2309-26A>G NM_000256.3
MYBPC3 Chr11:47368581 c.906-1G>C NM_000256.3 rs587776700
MYBPC3 Chr11:47368616 c.906-36G>A NM_000256.3 rs864622197

Added and removed genes from the panel

Genes added Genes removed

Test strength

The strengths of this test include:
  • CAP and ISO-15189 accreditations covering all operations at Blueprint Genetics including all Whole Exome Sequencing, NGS panels and confirmatory testing
  • CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
  • Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
  • Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
  • Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
  • Our publically available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
  • ~1,500 non-coding disease causing variants in Blueprint WES assay (please see below ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’)
  • Our rigorous variant classification based on modified ACMG variant classification scheme
  • Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
  • Our comprehensive clinical statements

Test limitations

The following exons are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads: *PRKAG2* (10, 13). Genes with suboptimal coverage in our assay are marked with number sign (#) and genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. Gene is considered to have suboptimal coverage when >90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are not covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).

This test does not detect the following:
  • Complex inversions
  • Gene conversions
  • Balanced translocations
  • Mitochondrial DNA variants
  • Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
  • Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).

This test may not reliably detect the following:

  • Low level mosaicism
  • Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
  • Indels larger than 50bp
  • Single exon deletions or duplications
  • Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments

The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.

For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.

The Blueprint Genetics hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) panel covers classical genes associated with RCM, obstructive HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and cardiomagaly. The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.

Our panels are sliced from our high-quality whole exome sequencing data. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for different types of alterations at the whole exome level (Table).

Assays have been validated for different starting materials including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (no FFPE), saliva and dry blood spots (filter card) and all provide high-quality results. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find a molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be a cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive of a specific mutation type.

Performance of Blueprint Genetics Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) assay. All individual panels are sliced from WES data.

Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN) Specificity %
Single nucleotide variants 99.65% (412,456/413,893) >99.99%
Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis
1-10 bps 96.94% (17,070/17,608) >99.99%
11-50 bps 99.07% (957/966) >99.99%
Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)
Clinical samples (small CNVs, n=52)
1 exon level deletion 92.3% (24/26) NA
2 exons level deletion/duplication 100.0% (11/11) NA
3-7 exons level deletion/duplication 93.3% (14/15) NA
Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))
Size range (0.1-47 Mb) 100% (37/37)
Simulated CNV detection
2 exons level deletion/duplication 90.98% (7,357/8,086) 99.96%
5 exons level deletion/duplication 98.63% (7,975/8,086) 99.98%
The performance presented above reached by WES with the following coverage metrics
Mean sequencing depth at exome level 174x
Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%) 99.4%


The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases such as, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, the customer has an access to details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with inadequate coverage if present. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where customers have easy access to crucial details of the analysis process.

Clinical interpretation

We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.

Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.

The final step in the analysis of sequence variants is confirmation of variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic using bi-directional Sanger sequencing. Variant(s) fulfilling all of the following criteria are not Sanger confirmed: 1) the variant quality score is above the internal threshold for a true positive call, 2) an unambiguous IGV in-line with the variant call and 3) previous Sanger confirmation of the same variant at least three times at Blueprint Genetics. Reported variants of uncertain significance are confirmed with bi-directional Sanger sequencing only if the quality score is below our internally defined quality score for true positive call. Reported copy number variations with a size <10 exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.

Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references used, congress abstracts and mutation databases to help our customers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.

Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification within the family. In the case of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), we do not recommend family member risk stratification based on the VUS result. Furthermore, in the case of VUS, we do not recommend the use of genetic information in patient management or genetic counseling. For eligible cases, Blueprint Genetics offers a no charge service to investigate the role of reported VUS (VUS Clarification Service).

Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Thus, our database, and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes, is growing by leaps and bounds. Our laboratory is therefore well positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.

Ackerman, M.J. et al. HRS/EHRA expert consensus statement on the state of genetic testing for the channelopathies and cardiomyopathies: this document was developed as a partnership between the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA). Europace 2011, 13(8) , 1077–1109.

Ando, Y. et al., 2013. Guideline of transthyretin-related hereditary amyloidosis for clinicians. Orphanet J Rare Dis, 8, p.31.

Ashley, E.A. et al., 2012. Genetics and cardiovascular disease: a policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 126(1), pp.142–157.

Charron, P. et al. Genetic counselling and testing in cardiomyopathies: a position statement of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases. Eur Heart J 2010, (22), 2715–2726.

Dubrey, S.W. et al. 2011. Amyloid diseases of the heart: assessment, diagnosis, and referral. Heart, 97(1), pp.75–84.

Gersh, B.J. et al., 2011. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation, 124(24), pp.2761–2796.

Gollob, M.H. et al., 2011. Recommendations for the use of genetic testing in the clinical evaluation of inherited cardiac arrhythmias associated with sudden cardiac death: Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society joint position paper. Can J Card, 27(2), pp.232–245.

Hershberger, R.E. et al., 2009. Genetic evaluation of cardiomyopathy–a Heart Failure Society of America practice guideline. J Card Failure, 15(2), pp.83–97.

Ingles, J. et al. A cost-effectiveness model of genetic testing for the evaluation of families with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Heart 2012, 98(8), 625–630.

Ingles, J. et al., 2013. Clinical predictors of genetic testing outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Genetics in Medicine, 15(12), pp.972–977.

Katzin, L.W. & Amato, A.A., 2008. Pompe disease: a review of the current diagnosis and treatment recommendations in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. J Clin Neuromusc Dis, 9(4), pp.421–431.

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Maron, B.J. et al. Contemporary Definitions and Classification of the Cardiomyopathies: An American Heart Association Scientific Statement From the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Heart Failure and Transplantation Committee; Quality of Care and Outcomes Research and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology Interdisciplinary Working Groups; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 2006, 113(14), 1807–1816.

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Richards S et al. Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 Mar 5, in press.