Hereditary Renal Cancer Panel

Summary
  • Is a 26 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
  • Is ideal for patients with a clinical suspicion of hereditary renal cancer. This panel is designed to detect heritable germline mutations and should not be used for the detection of somatic mutations in tumor tissue.

Analysis methods
  • PLUS
Availability

4 weeks

Number of genes

26

Test code

ON1501

Panel size

Small

CPT codes
81479

Summary

The Blueprint Genetics Hereditary Renal Cancer Panel (test code ON1501):

ICD codes

Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Hereditary Renal Cancer Panel

ICD-10 Disease
Q87.89 Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome
Q85.8 Von Hippel-Lindau disease
D23.9 Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer
C75.0 Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma
Q85.1 Tuberous sclerosis

Sample Requirements

  • Blood (min. 1ml) in an EDTA tube
  • Extracted DNA, min. 2 μg in TE buffer or equivalent
  • Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit/OGD-500 or OG-575 & OGD-575)

Label the sample tube with your patient's name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.

Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Read more about our sample requirements here.

The main inherited forms of renal cell cancer and the associated genes include von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), hereditary papillary renal cancer (MET), hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cancer (FH), familial renal cancer (BAP1), Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (FLCN), and renal cancer associated with tuberous sclerosis (TSC1, TSC2). In general, hereditary renal cancer cases present with an earlier age of onset and are more likely to involve bilateral tumors. Other neoplasms may also occur. The risk of developing renal cancer associated with these syndromes varies but can be as high as 67% for patients with hereditary papillary renal cancer. Germline mutations in WT1 are associated with Wilms tumor, one of the most common solid tumors of childhood, occurring in 1 in 10,000 children and accounting for 8% of childhood cancers. The prevalence of individual hereditary renal cancer syndromes varies from very rare to 3:100,000.

Genes in the Hereditary Renal Cancer Panel and their clinical significance

Gene Associated phenotypes Inheritance ClinVar HGMD
BAP1 Tumor predisposition syndrome AD 74 113
CDC73 Carcinoma, parathyroid, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome AD 50 101
CDKN1C Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, IMAGE syndrome AD 35 81
DICER1* DICER1 syndrome AD 197 137
DIS3L2* Perlman syndrome AR 12 14
EPCAM Diarrhea 5, with tufting enteropathy, congenital, Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis AD/AR 38 80
FH Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer AD/AR 178 207
FLCN Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, Pneumothorax, primary spontaneous AD 154 210
GPC3 Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome XL 33 75
MET Deafness, Renal cell carcinoma, papillary, Osteofibrous dysplasia, susceptibility to AD/AR 20 34
MLH1 Muir-Torre syndrome, Endometrial cancer, Mismatch repair cancer syndrome, Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis AD/AR 873 1191
MSH2 Muir-Torre syndrome, Endometrial cancer, Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis,, Mismatch repair cancer syndrome AD/AR 933 1249
MSH6 Endometrial cancer, Mismatch repair cancer syndrome, Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis AD/AR 672 586
PMS2* Mismatch repair cancer syndrome, Colorectal cancer, hereditary nonpolyposis AD/AR 319 342
PTEN* Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos syndrome, Cowden syndrome AD 435 638
REST Fibromatosis, gingival, 5 AD 3 16
SDHB Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma, Pheochromocytoma, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Paragangliomas, Cowden-like syndrome AD 151 272
SDHC Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Paragangliomas AD 29 60
SDHD# Paraganglioma and gastric stromal sarcoma, Pheochromocytoma, Paragangliomas, Carcinoid tumors, intestinal, Cowden syndrome, Mitochondrial complex II deficiency AD 68 170
SMARCA4 Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome AD 76 57
SMARCB1 Schwannomatosis, Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome, Coffin-Siris syndrome 3 AD 36 118
TP53 Colorectal cancer, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Ependymoma, intracranial, Choroid plexus papilloma, Breast cancer, familial, Adrenocortical carcinoma, Osteogenic sarcoma, Hepatoblastoma, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma AD 393 505
TSC1 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Tuberous sclerosis AD 177 372
TSC2 Lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Tuberous sclerosis AD 396 1195
VHL Erythrocytosis, familial, Pheochromocytoma AD/AR 206 614
WT1 Denys-Drash syndrome, Frasier syndrome, Wilms tumor, Nephrotic syndrome, type 4 AD 42 183

* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.

# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads), and/or the gene has exons listed under Test limitations section that are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads.

The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)

Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.

Non-coding variants covered by Hereditary Renal Cancer Panel

Gene Genomic location HG19 HGVS RefSeq RS-number
BAP1 Chr3:52435659 c.*644delG NM_004656.3
CDKN1C Chr11:2905209 c.*5+20G>T NM_000076.2 rs760540648
DICER1 Chr14:95559038 c.5364+1187T>G NM_177438.2
EPCAM Chr2:47606078 c.556-14A>G NM_002354.2 rs376155665
MLH1 Chr3:37034619 c.-413_-411delGAG NM_000249.3 rs953169437
MLH1 Chr3:37034932 c.-107C>G NM_000249.3 rs587778886
MLH1 Chr3:37034976 c.-63_-58delGTGATTinsCACGAGGCACGAGCACGA NM_000249.3
MLH1 Chr3:37034997 c.-42C>T NM_000249.3 rs41285097
MLH1 Chr3:37035012 c.-27C>A NM_000249.3 rs587779001
MLH1 Chr3:37035260 c.116+106G>A NM_000249.3
MLH1 Chr3:37038099 c.117-11T>A NM_000249.3 rs267607711
MLH1 Chr3:37050292 c.454-13A>G NM_000249.3 rs267607749
MLH1 Chr3:37061788 c.885-9_887dupTCCTGACAGTTT NM_000249.3 rs63751620
MLH1 Chr3:37070436 c.1558+13T>A NM_000249.3 rs267607834
MSH2 Chr2:47630106 c.-225G>C NM_000251.2 rs138068023
MSH2 Chr2:47630150 c.-181G>A NM_000251.2 rs786201698
MSH2 Chr2:47630249 c.-81dupA NM_000251.2 rs560991330,rs587779187
MSH2 Chr2:47630251 c.-78_-77delTG NM_000251.2 rs587779182
MSH2 Chr2:47698086 c.1662-17dupG NM_000251.2 rs587779099
MSH6 Chr2:48018295 c.457+33_457+34insGTGT NM_000179.2
MSH6 Chr2:48030536 c.3173-16_3173-5delCCCTCTCTTTTA NM_000179.2
MSH6 Chr2:48034014 c.*15A>C NM_000179.2
MSH6 Chr2:48034047 c.*49_*68dupTTCAGACAACATTATGATCT NM_000179.2 rs777409019
PMS2 Chr7:6027263 c.1145-31_1145-13delCTGACCCTCTTCTCCGTCC NM_000535.5 rs751973268
PMS2 Chr7:6048599 c.23+21_23+28delTCCGGTGT NM_000535.5
PTEN Chr10:89622883–89623482
PTEN Chr10:89622988 c.-1239A>G NM_000314.6
PTEN Chr10:89623049 c.-1178C>T NM_000314.6
PTEN Chr10:89623056 c.-1171C>T NM_000314.6 rs587779981
PTEN Chr10:89623116 c.-1111A>G NM_000314.6
PTEN Chr10:89623226 c.-1001T>C NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89623296 c.-931G>A NM_000314.4 rs587781959
PTEN Chr10:89623306 c.-921G>T NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89623331 c.-896T>C NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89623365 c.-862G>T NM_000314.4 rs587776675
PTEN Chr10:89623373 c.-854C>G NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89623392 c.-835C>T NM_000314.4 rs587779994
PTEN Chr10:89623428 c.-799G>C NM_000314.4 rs587779992
PTEN Chr10:89623462 c.-765G>A NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89690791 c.210-8dupT NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89692749 c.254-21G>C NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89725294 c.*65T>A NM_000314.4
PTEN Chr10:89725304 c.*75_*92delTAATGGCAATAGGACATTinsCTATGGCAATAGGACATTG NM_000314.4
REST Chr4:57793760 c.983-2247C>G NM_005612.4
SMARCB1 Chr22:24130008 c.93+559A>G NM_003073.3
SMARCB1 Chr22:24176316 c.1119-12C>G NM_003073.3
SMARCB1 Chr22:24176437 c.*70C>T NM_003073.3
SMARCB1 Chr22:24176449 c.*82C>T NM_003073.3
TP53 Chr17:7571520 NM_000546.5
TP53 Chr17:7577647 c.673-39G>A NM_000546.5
TP53 Chr17:7579601 c.97-11C>G NM_000546.5
TP53 Chr17:7590694 c.-29+1G>T NM_000546.5
TSC1 Chr9:135800306 c.363+668G>A NM_000368.4
TSC2 Chr16:2098067 c.-30+1G>C NM_000548.3 rs587778004
TSC2 Chr16:2106052 c.600-145C>T NM_000548.3
TSC2 Chr16:2107460 c.848+281C>T NM_000548.3
TSC2 Chr16:2110656 c.976-15G>A NM_000548.3 rs45517150
TSC2 Chr16:2127477 c.2838-122G>A NM_000548.3
TSC2 Chr16:2138031 c.5069-18A>G NM_000548.3 rs45484794
VHL Chr3:10183453 c.-75_-55delCGCACGCAGCTCCGCCCCGCG NM_000551.3 rs727503744
VHL Chr3:10183471 c.-54_-44dupTCCGACCCGCG NM_000551.3
VHL Chr3:10191719 c.*70C>A NM_000551.3
VHL Chr3:10191719 c.*70C>T NM_000551.3 rs552290225

Added and removed genes from the panel

Genes added Genes removed


Test Strengths

The strengths of this test include:
  • CAP accredited laboratory
  • CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
  • Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
  • Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
  • Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
  • Our publicly available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
  • ~2,000 non-coding disease causing variants in our clinical grade NGS assay for panels (please see ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’ in the Panel Content section)
  • Our rigorous variant classification scheme
  • Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
  • Our comprehensive clinical statements

Test Limitations

This panel may not detect inversions, including the inversion of exons 1-7 of MSH2. The following exons are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads: SDHD (NM_001276506:4). Genes with suboptimal coverage in our assay are marked with number sign (#) and genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. Gene is considered to have suboptimal coverage when >90% of the gene's target nucleotides are not covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).

This test does not detect the following:
  • Complex inversions
  • Gene conversions
  • Balanced translocations
  • Mitochondrial DNA variants
  • Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
  • Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).
This test may not reliably detect the following:
  • Low level mosaicism (variant with a minor allele fraction of 14.6% is detected with 90% probability)
  • Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
  • Indels larger than 50bp
  • Single exon deletions or duplications
  • Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments

The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.

For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.

The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.

Our panels are sectioned from our high-quality, clinical grade NGS assay. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for details regarding our ability to detect different types of alterations (Table).

Assays have been validated for various sample types including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (excluding from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue), saliva and dry blood spots (filter cards). These sample types were selected in order to maximize the likelihood for high-quality DNA yield. The diagnostic yield varies depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Plus analysis increases the likelihood of finding a genetic diagnosis for your patient, as large deletions and duplications cannot be detected using sequence analysis alone. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis is a combination of both sequencing and deletion/duplication (copy number variant (CNV)) analysis.

Performance of Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay for panels.

Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN) Specificity %
Single nucleotide variants 99.89% (99,153/99,266) >99.9999%
Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis
1-10 bps 96.9% (7,563/7,806) >99.9999%
11-50 bps 99.13% (2,524/2,546) >99.9999%
Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)
1 exon level deletion (heterozygous) 100% (20/20) NA
1 exon level deletion (homozygous) 100% (5/5) NA
1 exon level deletion (het or homo) 100% (25/25) NA
2-7 exon level deletion (het or homo) 100% (44/44) NA
1-9 exon level duplication (het or homo) 75% (6/8) NA
Simulated CNV detection
5 exons level deletion/duplication 98.7% 100.00%
Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))
Size range (0.1-47 Mb) 100% (37/37)
     
The performance presented above reached by Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay with the following coverage metrics
     
Mean sequencing depth 143X
Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%) 99.86%

Bioinformatics

The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding and regulatory variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases including, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as  SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, ordering providers have access to the details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with <20X sequencing depth if applicable. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where ordering providers can easily visualize the crucial details of the analysis process.

Clinical interpretation

We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.

Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.

The final step in the analysis is orthogonal confirmation. Sequence variants classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are confirmed using bi-directional Sanger sequencing when they do not meet our stringent NGS quality metrics for a true positive call.
Reported heterozygous and homo/hemizygous copy number variations with a size <10 and <3 target exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen and confirmed less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.

Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references, abstracts and variant databases used to help ordering providers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.

Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification. We do not recommend using variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for family member risk stratification or patient management. Genetic counseling is recommended.

Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Our internal database and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes increases with every case analyzed. Our laboratory is therefore well-positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.

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