Complement System Disorder Panel

Last modified: Mar 21, 2018


  • Is a 75 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
  • Is ideal for patients with defects in the complement system. This panel can also be used for patients with a clinical suspicion of an atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).

Analysis methods

  • PLUS
  • SEQ


3-4 weeks

Number of genes


Test code


CPT codes

DEL/DUP 81479
SEQ 81479


The Blueprint Genetics Complement System Disorder Panel (test code IM0701):

  • Is a 75 gene panel that includes assessment of selected non-coding disease-causing variants
  • Is available as PLUS analysis (sequencing analysis and deletion/duplication analysis), sequencing analysis only or deletion/duplication analysis only

ICD codes

Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Complement System Disorder Panel

ICD-10 Disease
D84.1 Defects in the complement system
D58.8 Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS)

Sample Requirements

  • EDTA blood, min. 1 ml
  • Purified DNA, min. 3μg
  • Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit)

Label the sample tube with your patient’s name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.

Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue.

The complement system disorders are a group of primary immunodeficiencies resulting in absent or suboptimal function of complement system proteins. In general, deficiencies of the classical and alternative complement pathways are rather rare, while deficiencies of the proteins in the mannose-binding lectin (MBL) pathway are more common. C2-deficiency is the most common classical pathway complement deficiency in many populations and its prevalence is estimated to be 1:10,000. There are two main categories of complement system disorders, originating from mutations in genes encoding proteins either inhibiting or activating the complement system and thus resulting in overactive or underactive responses, respectively. Complement system disorders predispose patients for example to (Neisserial) infections, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, age-related macular degeneration, systemic lupus erythematosus SLE and preeclampsia. This panel covers genes associated with autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant as well as X-linked forms of complement deficiencies. In addition to complement system disorders, this panel has the ability to diagnose other conditions, such as primary ciliary dyskinesia, that is characterized by recurrent respiratory infections. OTHER INFORMATION ON CFH AND CFHR1-4 GENES

CFH gene have multiple exons that are pseudogenic (exons 8-9, 11, 21-23). Moreover, the function of CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3 and CFHR4 has not been established and they are highly homologues (see below chapter ‘CFHR1-4 genes‘). Genetics of atypic hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) Mutations in CFH account for approximately 30% of the cases, CD46 (also known as MCP) 12%, CFI 5%-10%, C3 5%, THBD 3%-5%. In early onset aHUS, disease manifesting before age 1 year, mutations in DGKE explain 27% of the cases. Inheritance mode is difficult to determine for most of the genes related to aHUS due to low penetrance but the predisposition to disease is commonly autosomal dominant. In the ClinVar mutation database, vast majority of the novel disease associated variants in major aHUS genes such as CFH, CD46, CFI and C3 are classified as risk factors but not pathogenic or likely pathogenic. In most of the families where probands has novel variant in aHUS genes, some of the unaffected parents or other family members carry the same variant. However, one study showed fully penetrant recessive aHUS relating to homozygous CFH mutations in a large Bedouin pedigree with 10 aHUS cases (PubMed: 9811382). In addition, deletions in CFHR1 to CFHR5 genes have shown to increase slightly a risk for aHUS. The Newcastle cohort of 66 aHUS patients showed deletions in CFHR1 were more frequent in aHUS patients compared to controls (zero copies 10% vs. 2%; one copy 35%vs 9% and two copies 55% vs.89%) indicating odds ratios (OR) 6.3 for homozygous deletion and 3.8 for heterozygous. Absence of CFHR1 and/or CFHR3 was shown to contribute to the defective regulation of complement activation on cell and tissue surfaces (PubMed: 17367211). Hofer et al evaluated 116 aHUS patients and 118 control. Homozygous deletion in CFHR1 was detected in 32% of the patients with aHUS tested and in 2.5% of controls. CFH antibodies were present in 25% of the patients and none of the controls. CFH antibodies were detected in 82% of patients with homozygous CFHR1 deletion and in 6% of patients without. CFH antibody-positive patients with aHUS showed a significantly lower platelet nadir at disease onset and significantly less frequent involvement of the central nervous system than did antibody-negative patients. Antibody-positive patients also received plasma therapy more often (PubMed: 23243267). It is noteworthy that disease activity appears to correlate better with immune complex titers than FHAA titers (PubMed: 22922817). In 2016, Challis et al described novel CFH/CFHR3 hybrid gene in a patient with aHUS secondary to a de novo 6.3-kb deletion that arose through microhomology-mediated end joining rather than nonallelic homologous recombination. Secreted protein product lacked the recognition domain of factor H and exhibits impaired cell surface complement regulation. The fact that the formation of this hybrid gene arose as a de novo event suggests that this cluster is a dynamic area of the genome in which additional genomic disorders may arise (PubMed: 26490391). CFHR1-4 genes In August 25 2017, Blueprint Genetics excluded CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4 genes from three diagnostic NGS panels including Primary Immunodeficiency Panel, Complement System Disorder Panel and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Panel. This was done due to extensive homology between these genes making it difficult or even impossible to determine copy number reliably from these genes with short read length NGS methods. Moreover, homozygous or heterozygous deletions involving these gene are common in population even though enriched in patients with aHUS. By relying on three estimates: 1) higher end of aHUS prevalence (9 per 1,000,000), 2) frequency of homozygous CFHR1 deletion (2%) and 3) assuming that all aHUS cases would be caused by this defect (over estimating the effect), we are left with the fact that 99.95% of the individuals with homozygous CFHR1 deletion will never get aHUS. Thus, we consider releasing copy number from CFHR1-4 genes may be misleading, and is not considered helpful in clinical practice. We believe that fusion genes between CFH and CFHR1-4 may be the mechanism that explain the association between CFHR1-4 gene deletions and aHUS. However, this kind of alterations are not reliably detected by targeted sequencing approaches.

Genes in the Complement System Disorder Panel and their clinical significance

Gene Associated phenotypes Inheritance ClinVar HGMD
ADIPOQ Complement system AD/AR 2 8
ADIPOR1* Complement system AD/AR 4
ADIPOR2 Complement system AD/AR
ARMC4* Ciliary dyskinesia AR 13 15
C1QA C1q deficiency AR 2 7
C1QB C1q deficiency AR 4 7
C1QBP Primary immunodeficiency AD/AR 6
C1QC C1q deficiency AR 4 7
C1S Complement component C1s deficiency AR 4 8
C2* Complement component 2 deficiency AR 4 6
C3 Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, Complement component 3 deficiency AD/AR 5 82
C3AR1 Complement system AD/AR 1 3
C4BPA Complement system AD/AR 2
C4BPB Complement system AD/AR
C5 Eculizumab, poor response to, Complement component 5 deficiency AD/AR 5 17
C5AR1 Complement system AD/AR
C5AR2 Complement system AD/AR 2
C6 Complement component 6 deficiency AR 7 11
C7 Complement component 7 deficiency AR 14 29
C8A Complement component 8 deficiency AR 2 5
C8B Complement component 8 deficiency AR 7 7
C8G Immunodeficiency AD/AR
C9 Complement component 9 deficiency AR 7 7
CCDC39 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 16 38
CCDC40 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 19 32
CCDC65 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 1
CCDC103 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 3 4
CCDC114 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 6 7
CCNO Ciliary dyskinesia AR 9 9
CD46* Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical AD/AR 4 64
CD55 Blood group, Cromer system BG 7 6
CD59 CD59 deficiency AR 3 6
CD93 Complement system AD/AR
CFB Complement factor B deficiency, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical AD/AR 2 21
CFD Complement factor D deficiency AR 2 3
CFH* Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, Complement factor H deficiency, Basal laminar drusen AD/AR 17 259
CFI Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical, Complement factor I deficiency AD/AR 7 123
CFP Properdin deficiency XL 5 17
CLU Complement system AD/AR 16
COLEC11 3MC syndrome AR 6 10
CR2 Common variable immunodeficiency AR 2 5
CRP Complement system AD/AR
DGKE Nephrotic syndrome AR 13 27
DNAAF1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 9 30
DNAAF2 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 6 3
DNAAF3 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 6 3
DNAAF5 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 2 2
DNAH5 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 60 141
DNAH11* Ciliary dyskinesia AR 30 90
DNAI1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 12 28
DNAI2 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 11 6
DNAL1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 3 1
DRC1 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 3 2
DYX1C1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 9 11
FCN1 Complement system AD/AR 3
FCN2 Complement system AD/AR
FCN3 Immunodeficiency due to Ficolin 3 deficiency AR 1
HYDIN*,# Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 5 15
LRRC6 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 7 16
MASP1 3MC syndrome AR 7 17
MASP2 MASP2 deficiency AR 2
MAT2A* Complement system AD/AR 2
NME8 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 1 5
OFD1 Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Retinitis pigmentosa, Orofaciodigital syndrome, Joubert syndrome XL 133 156
PIGA* Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome XL 23 17
PTX3 Complement system AD/AR
RSPH1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 11 10
RSPH4A Ciliary dyskinesia AR 8 21
RSPH9 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 4 11
SERPING1 Angioedema AD/AR 26 535
SPAG1 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 13 10
THBD Thrombophilia due to thrombomodulin defect, Hemolytic uremic syndrome, atypical AD 5 21
VSIG4 Complement system XL 1
VTN Complement system AD/AR
ZMYND10 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 6 16

* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.

# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads).

The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)

Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.

Non-coding variants covered by the panel

Gene Genomic location HG19 HGVS RefSeq RS-number
C1QB Chr1:22985931 c.-17-2A>C NM_000491.3
C7 Chr5:40931143 c.63-23T>A NM_000587.2 rs772462732
CCDC39 Chr3:180367941 c.1167+1248A>G NM_181426.1
DGKE Chr17:54925466 c.888+40A>G NM_003647.2
OFD1 ChrX:13773245 c.1130-22_1130-19delAATT NM_003611.2 rs312262865
OFD1 ChrX:13768358 c.935+706A>G NM_003611.2 rs730880283
SERPING1 Chr11:57365057 c.-161A>G NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57365055 c.-163C>T NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57365721 c.-22-1G>A NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57365720 c.-22-2A>C/G NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57381788 c.1250-13G>A NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57373471 c.686-12A>G NM_000062.2
SERPING1 Chr11:57373867 c.890-14C>G NM_000062.2
THBD Chr20:23030292 c.-151G>T NM_000361.2 rs16984852
THBD Chr20:23030443 c.-302C>A NM_000361.2

Added and removed genes from the panel

Genes added Genes removed


Test strength

The strengths of this test include:
  • CAP and ISO-15189 accreditations covering all operations at Blueprint Genetics including all Whole Exome Sequencing, NGS panels and confirmatory testing
  • CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
  • Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
  • Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
  • Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
  • Our publically available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
  • 1479 non-coding disease causing variants in Blueprint WES assay (please see below ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’)
  • Our rigorous variant classification based on modified ACMG variant classification scheme
  • Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
  • Our comprehensive clinical statements

Test limitations

Due to regions of segmental duplications, the genes CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3 and CFHR4 cannot be reliably analyzed with NGS technologies. These genes are not included in this Panel. Please see more information on 'about the disease' section. The following exons are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads: ARMC4 (9), HYDIN (6, 8, 12, 18, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 31, 35, 37, 45, 47, 50, 52, 57, 58, 64, 70, 75, 78, 82, 83). Genes with suboptimal coverage in our assay are marked with number sign (#) and genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. Gene is considered to have suboptimal coverage when >90% of the gene's target nucleotides are not covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).

This test does not detect the following:
  • Complex inversions
  • Gene conversions
  • Balanced translocations
  • Mitochondrial DNA variants
  • Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
  • Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).

This test may not reliably detect the following:

  • Low level mosaicism
  • Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
  • Indels larger than 50bp
  • Single exon deletions or duplications
  • Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments

The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.

For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.

The Blueprint Genetics complement system disorder panel covers classical genes associated with defects in the complement system, Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and primary ciliary dyskinesia. The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.

Our panels are sliced from our high-quality whole exome sequencing data. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for different types of alterations at the whole exome level (Table).

Assays have been validated for different starting materials including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (no FFPE), saliva and dry blood spots (filter card) and all provide high-quality results. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics' Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find a molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be a cost-effective first line test if your patient's phenotype is suggestive of a specific mutation type.

Performance of Blueprint Genetics Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) assay. All individual panels are sliced from WES data.

Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN) Specificity %
Single nucleotide variants 99.65% (412,456/413,893) >99.99%
Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis
1-10 bps 96.94% (17,070/17,608) >99.99%
11-50 bps 99.07% (957/966) >99.99%
Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)
Clinical samples (small CNVs, n=52)
1 exon level deletion 92.3% (24/26) NA
2 exons level deletion/duplication 100.0% (11/11) NA
3-7 exons level deletion/duplication 93.3% (14/15) NA
Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))
Size range (0.1-47 Mb) 100% (37/37)
Simulated CNV detection
2 exons level deletion/duplication 90.98% (7,357/8,086) 99.96%
5 exons level deletion/duplication 98.63% (7,975/8,086) 99.98%
The performance presented above reached by WES with the following coverage metrics
Mean sequencing depth at exome level 174x
Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%) 99.4%


The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases such as, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, the customer has an access to details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with inadequate coverage if present. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where customers have easy access to crucial details of the analysis process.

Clinical interpretation

We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.

Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.

The final step in the analysis of sequence variants is confirmation of variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic using bi-directional Sanger sequencing. Variant(s) fulfilling all of the following criteria are not Sanger confirmed: 1) the variant quality score is above the internal threshold for a true positive call, 2) an unambiguous IGV in-line with the variant call and 3) previous Sanger confirmation of the same variant at least three times at Blueprint Genetics. Reported variants of uncertain significance are confirmed with bi-directional Sanger sequencing only if the quality score is below our internally defined quality score for true positive call. Reported copy number variations with a size <10 exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.

Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references used, congress abstracts and mutation databases to help our customers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.

Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification within the family. In the case of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), we do not recommend family member risk stratification based on the VUS result. Furthermore, in the case of VUS, we do not recommend the use of genetic information in patient management or genetic counseling. For eligible cases, Blueprint Genetics offers a no charge service to investigate the role of reported VUS (VUS Clarification Service).

Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Thus, our database, and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes, is growing by leaps and bounds. Our laboratory is therefore well positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.