- Is a 44 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
Is ideal for patients with nephrotic syndrome
The Blueprint Genetics Nephrotic Syndrome Panel (test code KI0401):
Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Nephrotic Syndrome Panel
- Blood (min. 1ml) in an EDTA tube
- Extracted DNA, min. 2 μg in TE buffer or equivalent
- Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit/OGD-500 or OG-575 & OGD-575)
Label the sample tube with your patient's name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.
Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Read more about our sample requirements here.
Nephrotic syndrome is caused by a leaky glomerular filtration barrier resulting in extensive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia and edema. The majority of patients (80-90%) with nephrotic syndrome are responsive to steroid treatment and achieve remission with a good long-term prognosis. The remaining 10-20% are considered to have steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Some of these patients may respond to other immunosuppressive therapies. The prognosis of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is poor, as 30–40% develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis and transplantation (PMID: 19280229). Decades of extensive research have revealed important insights into the molecular genetic structure and function of the glomerular filtration barrier. Identification of nephrin gene (NPHS1) mutation, causing congenital nephrosis of Finnish type, opened up a new era in the understanding of the pathophysiology and genetics of proteinuric diseases. Identified genes, their mutations, and genotype-phenotype correlations are now being translated into everyday clinical practice through genetic testing. Ineffective treatment with steroids and other immunosuppressives can be avoided with genetic testing in patients with nephrotic syndrome (PMID: 20798252). Identification of causative mutations can also be used in the prediction of increased risk of post-transplant proteinuria. Post-transplant recurrence is generally high but almost unknown in patients with a genetic origin of the disease. After establishing a genetic diagnosis, transplantation, particularly live related transplantation, may be explored as a therapeutic option in the early phases of the disease (PMID: 20798252). This nephrotic syndrome panel also includes disorders resulting in progressive renal failure such as Alport syndrome.
Genes in the Nephrotic Syndrome Panel and their clinical significance
|ACTN4*||Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||AD||4||31|
|ANLN||Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||AD||2||4|
|APOL1*||Sporadic idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental hyalinosis||AD/AR||1|
|ARHGAP24||Familial idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental hyalinosis||AD/AR||3||10|
|CD2AP||Glomerulosclerosis, focal segmental||AR||3||14|
|COL4A3||Alport syndrome, Hematuria, benign familial||AD/AR||123||264|
|COQ2||Coenzyme Q10 deficiency||AR||16||31|
|CRB2||Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Ventriculomegaly with cystic kidney disease||AR||12||22|
|FAN1||Interstitial nephritis, karyomegalic||AR||12||21|
|FN1||Glomerulopathy with fibronectin deposits 2||AD||14||25|
|INF2||Glomerulosclerosis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease||AD||20||67|
|ITGA3||Interstitial lung disease with nephrotic syndrome and epidermolysis bullosa||AR||6||11|
|KANK1||Cerebral palsy, spastic quadriplegic, 2, Nephrotic syndrome||AD||4||10|
|KANK2||Palmoplantar keratoderma and woolly hair, Nephrotic syndrome||AR||3||3|
|LAMB2||Nephrotic syndrome, Pierson syndrome||AR||20||122|
|MAFB||Multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis||AD||13||23|
|MAGI2||Nephrotic syndrome 15||AR||7||27|
|MYH9||Sebastian syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly, Epstein syndrome, Fechtner syndrome, Macrothrombocytopenia and progressive sensorineural deafness, Deafness, autosomal dominant 17||AD||25||117|
|MYO1E||Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||AR||3||22|
|NUP107||Nephrotic syndrome, type 11||AR||6||12|
|SCARB2||Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic||AR||23||27|
|SGPL1||Nephrotic syndrome 14||AR||8||17|
|SMARCAL1||Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia||AR||20||88|
|TRPC6||Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis||AD||13||45|
|TTC21B||Short-rib thoracic dysplasia, Nephronophthisis, Asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia (ATD; Jeune)||AR||23||63|
|WT1||Denys-Drash syndrome, Frasier syndrome, Wilms tumor, Nephrotic syndrome, type 4||AD||42||183|
* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.
# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads).
The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)
Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.
Non-coding variants covered by Nephrotic Syndrome Panel
|Gene||Genomic location HG19||HGVS||RefSeq||RS-number|
Added and removed genes from the panel
|Genes added||Genes removed|
|APOL1 DLC1 FAT1 KANK1 KANK2 KANK4 NUP93 OSGEP XPO5|
- CAP and ISO-15189 accredited laboratory
- CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
- Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
- Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
- Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
- Our publicly available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
- ~2,000 non-coding disease causing variants in our clinical grade NGS assay for panels (please see below ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’)
- Our rigorous variant classification scheme
- Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
- Our comprehensive clinical statements
Genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).
- Complex inversions
- Gene conversions
- Balanced translocations
- Mitochondrial DNA variants
- Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
- Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).
- Low level mosaicism (variant with a minor allele fraction of 14.6% is detected with 90% probability)
- Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
- Indels larger than 50bp
- Single exon deletions or duplications
- Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments
The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.
For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.
The Blueprint Genetics nephrotic syndrome panel covers classical genes associated with nephrotic syndrome. The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.
Our panels are sliced from our high-quality whole exome sequencing data. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for different types of alterations at the whole exome level (Table).
Assays have been validated for different starting materials including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (no FFPE), saliva and dry blood spots (filter card) and all provide high-quality results. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find a molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be a cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive of a specific mutation type.
Performance of Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay for panels.
|Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN)||Specificity %|
|Single nucleotide variants||99.89% (99,153/99,266)||>99.9999|
|Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis|
|1-10 bps||96.9% (7,563/7,806)||>99.9999|
|11-50 bps||99.13% (2,524/2,546)||>99.9999|
|Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)|
|1 exon level deletion (heterozygous)||100% (20/20)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (homozygous)||100% (5/5)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (25/25)||NA|
|2-7 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (44/44)||NA|
|1-9 exon level duplication (het or homo)||75% (6/8)||NA|
|Simulated CNV detection|
|5 exons level deletion/duplication||98.7%||100.00%|
|Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))|
|Size range (0.1-47 Mb)||100% (37/37)|
|The performance presented above reached by WES with the following coverage metrics|
|Mean sequencing depth at exome level||143X|
|Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%)||99.86%|
The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding and regulatory variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases including, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, ordering providers have access to the details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with <20X sequencing depth if applicable. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where ordering providers can easily visualize the crucial details of the analysis process.
We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.
Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.
The final step in the analysis is orthogonal confirmation. Sequence variants classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are confirmed using bi-directional Sanger sequencing when they do not meet our stringent NGS quality metrics for a true positive call. Reported heterozygous and homo/hemizygous copy number variations with a size <10 and <3 target exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen and confirmed less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.
Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references, abstracts and variant databases used to help ordering providers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.
Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification. We do not recommend using variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for family member risk stratification or patient management. Genetic counseling is recommended.
Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Our internal database and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes increases with every case analyzed. Our laboratory is therefore well-positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.