Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel

Last modified: Mar 28, 2019

Summary

  • Is a 36 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
  • Is ideal for patients with a clinical suspicion of cystic fibrosis, infertility, congenital malformations of the respiratory system or primary ciliary dyskinesia.

Analysis methods

  • PLUS
  • SEQ
  • DEL/DUP

Availability

4 weeks

Number of genes

36

Test code

KI1201

Panel size

Large

CPT codes

SEQ 81479
DEL/DUP 81479

Summary

The Blueprint Genetics Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel (test code KI1201):

ICD codes

Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel

ICD-10 Disease
Q34.8 Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Q34.8 Other specified congenital malformations of respiratory system
E84.0 Cystic fibrosis
N46.8 Infertility
Q89.3 Situs inversus

Sample Requirements

  • Blood (min. 1ml) in an EDTA tube
  • Extracted DNA, min. 2 μg in TE buffer or equivalent
  • Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit/OGD-500 or OG-575 & OGD-575)

Label the sample tube with your patient's name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.

Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Read more about our sample requirements here.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, situs abnormalities (situs ambiguous and situs inversus) and sometimes infertility due to abnormal sperm motility. The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia. Affected patients may have signs of PCD at birth or within the first few months of life but the symptoms and disease onset vary depending on underlying genetic defect. Most full-term neonates have respiratory distress with tachypnea (infant acute respiratory distress syndrome). Typical findings in infants and children include daily rhinitis and daily year-round wet cough occurring soon after birth, with associated recurrent or chronic infections of the lower airways. Patients with PCD, especially young children, may also experience recurrent ear infections (otitis media). The prevalence is difficult to determine and the incidence may be especially high in population isolates with a high rate of consanguinity. The total number of individuals with PCD in the United States is estimated at 12,000 to 17,000. PCD has an estimated incidence of 1:15,000-1:30,000 live births, but this is probably an underestimate. The Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel includes testing for cystic fibrosis (CF), which is characterized by the production of sweat with a high salt content and mucus secretions with an abnormal viscosity. CF is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The disease is chronic and generally progressive, with onset usually occurring during early childhood.

Genes in the Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel and their clinical significance

Gene Associated phenotypes Inheritance ClinVar HGMD
ARMC4* Ciliary dyskinesia AR 18 17
C21ORF59 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 5 4
CCDC103 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 4 5
CCDC114 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 9 8
CCDC39 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 39 47
CCDC40 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 33 43
CCDC65 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 2 2
CCNO Ciliary dyskinesia AR 11 10
CENPF Ciliary dyskinesia -Lethal Ciliopathy AR 13 8
CFTR Cystic fibrosis, Congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens AD/AR 518 1803
DNAAF1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 19 38
DNAAF2 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 13 6
DNAAF3 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 11 5
DNAAF5 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 9 5
DNAH1 Spermatogenic failure 18 AR 15 32
DNAH11* Ciliary dyskinesia AR 66 130
DNAH5 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 140 197
DNAI1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 17 35
DNAI2 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 19 6
DNAL1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 3 1
DRC1 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 5 3
DYX1C1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 15 12
GAS8 Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 33 AR 4 6
HYDIN*,# Primary ciliary dyskinesia AD/AR 5 25
INVS Nephronophthisis AR 16 34
LRRC6 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 10 19
NME8 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 1 6
OFD1 Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome, Retinitis pigmentosa, Orofaciodigital syndrome, Joubert syndrome XL 153 160
PIH1D3# Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 36 XL 2 12
RPGR Retinitis pigmentosa, Cone-rod dystrophy, X-linked, 1, Macular degeneration, X-linked atrophic, Retinitis pigmentosa 3 XL 79 218
RSPH1 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 14 10
RSPH3 Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 32 AR 7 5
RSPH4A Ciliary dyskinesia AR 18 24
RSPH9 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 8 12
SPAG1 Primary ciliary dyskinesia AR 18 11
ZMYND10 Ciliary dyskinesia AR 8 16

* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.

# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads).

The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)

Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.

Non-coding variants covered by Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Panel

Gene Genomic location HG19 HGVS RefSeq RS-number
CCDC39 Chr3:180367941 c.1167+1248A>G NM_181426.1
CFTR Chr7:117119654 c.-495C>T NM_000492.3 rs397507565
CFTR Chr7:117119900 c.-249G>C NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117119984 c.-165G>A NM_000492.3 rs145483167
CFTR Chr7:117120064 c.-85C>G NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117120115 c.-34C>T NM_000492.3 rs756314710
CFTR Chr7:117120325 c.53+124T>C NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117199500 c.1393-18G>A NM_000492.3 rs397508199
CFTR Chr7:117218381 c.1585-9412A>G NM_000492.3 rs397508229
CFTR Chr7:117227774 c.1585-19T>C NM_000492.3 rs778457306
CFTR Chr7:117229521 c.1680-886A>G NM_000492.3 rs397508266
CFTR Chr7:117229524 c.1680-883A>G NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117229530 c.1680-877G>T NM_000492.3 rs397508261
CFTR Chr7:117243855 c.2908+19G>C NM_000492.3 rs370683572
CFTR Chr7:117246713 c.2909-15T>G NM_000492.3 rs397508455
CFTR Chr7:117246840 c.2988+33G>T NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117251609 c.3140-26A>G NM_000492.3 rs76151804
CFTR Chr7:117251624 c.3140-11A>G NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117266272 c.3469-1304C>G NM_000492.3
CFTR Chr7:117267864 c.3717+40A>G NM_000492.3 rs397508595
CFTR Chr7:117280015 c.3718-2477C>T NM_000492.3 rs75039782
CFTR Chr7:117282680 c.3873+33A>G NM_000492.3 rs397508622
CFTR Chr7:117288374 c.3874-4522A>G NM_000492.3
OFD1 ChrX:13768358 c.935+706A>G NM_003611.2 rs730880283
OFD1 ChrX:13773245 c.1130-22_1130-19delAATT NM_003611.2 rs312262865
RPGR ChrX:38160137 c.1059+363G>A NM_001034853.1

Test strength

The strengths of this test include:
  • CAP and ISO-15189 accreditations covering all operations at Blueprint Genetics including all Whole Exome Sequencing, NGS panels and confirmatory testing
  • CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
  • Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
  • Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
  • Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
  • Our publically available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
  • ~1,500 non-coding disease causing variants in Blueprint WES assay (please see below ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’)
  • Our rigorous variant classification based on modified ACMG variant classification scheme
  • Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
  • Our comprehensive clinical statements

Test limitations

The following exons are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads: ARMC4 (9), HYDIN (6, 8, 12, 18, 20, 21, 23, 26, 27, 31, 35, 37, 45, 47, 50, 52, 57, 58, 64, 70, 75, 78, 82, 83). Genes with suboptimal coverage in our assay are marked with number sign (#) and genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. Gene is considered to have suboptimal coverage when >90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are not covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).

This test does not detect the following:
  • Complex inversions
  • Gene conversions
  • Balanced translocations
  • Mitochondrial DNA variants
  • Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
  • Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).

This test may not reliably detect the following:

  • Low level mosaicism (variant with a minor allele fraction of 14.6% is detected with 90% probability)
  • Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
  • Indels larger than 50bp
  • Single exon deletions or duplications
  • Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments

The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.

For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.

The Blueprint Genetics primary ciliary dyskinesia panel covers classical genes associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia, other specified congenital malformations of respiratory system, cystic fibrosis, infertility and situs inversus. The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.

Our panels are sliced from our high-quality whole exome sequencing data. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for different types of alterations at the whole exome level (Table).

Assays have been validated for different starting materials including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (no FFPE), saliva and dry blood spots (filter card) and all provide high-quality results. The diagnostic yield varies substantially depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis (Seq+Del/Dup) maximizes the chance to find a molecular genetic diagnosis for your patient although Sequence Analysis or Del/Dup Analysis may be a cost-effective first line test if your patient’s phenotype is suggestive of a specific mutation type.

Performance of Blueprint Genetics Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) assay. All individual panels are sliced from WES data.

Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN) Specificity %
Single nucleotide variants 99.65% (412,456/413,893) >99.99%
Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis
1-10 bps 96.94% (17,070/17,608) >99.99%
11-50 bps 99.07% (957/966) >99.99%
Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)
Clinical samples (small CNVs, n=52)
1 exon level deletion 92.3% (24/26) NA
2 exons level deletion/duplication 100.0% (11/11) NA
3-7 exons level deletion/duplication 93.3% (14/15) NA
Microdeletion/-duplication sdrs (large CNVs, n=37))
Size range (0.1-47 Mb) 100% (37/37)
Simulated CNV detection
2 exons level deletion/duplication 90.98% (7,357/8,086) 99.96%
5 exons level deletion/duplication 98.63% (7,975/8,086) 99.98%
     
The performance presented above reached by WES with the following coverage metrics
     
Mean sequencing depth at exome level 174x
Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%) 99.4%

Bioinformatics

The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases such as, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, the customer has an access to details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with inadequate coverage if present. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where customers have easy access to crucial details of the analysis process.

Clinical interpretation

We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.

Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.

The final step in the analysis is orthogonal confirmation. Sequence variants classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are confirmed using bi-directional Sanger sequencing when they do not meet our stringent NGS quality metrics for a true positive call.
Reported copy number variations with a size <10 exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen less than three times at Blueprint Genetics (Plus analysis only).

Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references used, congress abstracts and mutation databases to help our customers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.

Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification within the family. In the case of variants of uncertain significance (VUS), we do not recommend family member risk stratification based on the VUS result. Furthermore, in the case of VUS, we do not recommend the use of genetic information in patient management or genetic counseling.

Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Thus, our database, and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes, is growing by leaps and bounds. Our laboratory is therefore well positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.