- Is a 21 gene panel that includes assessment of non-coding variants
Is ideal for patients with a clinical suspicion of dementia.
The Blueprint Genetics Dementia Panel (test code NE2301):
Test Specific Strength
The APOE E4/E4 haplotype is reported if identified on this panel.
Commonly used ICD-10 code(s) when ordering the Dementia Panel
- Blood (min. 1ml) in an EDTA tube
- Extracted DNA, min. 2 μg in TE buffer or equivalent
- Saliva (Oragene DNA OG-500 kit/OGD-500 or OG-575 & OGD-575)
Label the sample tube with your patient's name, date of birth and the date of sample collection.
Note that we do not accept DNA samples isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue. Read more about our sample requirements here.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous group of non-Alzheimer dementias characterized by selective, progressive cortical atrophy involving the frontal or temporal lobes. FTD is substantially less common than Alzheimer’s disease, with estimates of population prevalence ranging from 4-5 per 100,000 before age 65. Age of onset is typically in the sixth decade of life. However, it may begin as early 30 or as late as the ninth decade. Approximately 20-50% of individuals with FTD have an affected first degree relative. FTD has a substantial genetic component, with an autosomal dominant or X-linked inheritance pattern. It is estimated that 10% of patients with FTD have a disease causing mutation in a single gene. The APOE E4 haplotype confers a significant risk for Alzheimer’s disease related dementia, especially in homozygous state. Therefore, this haplotype is reported from this panel, if detected in homozygous state.
Genes in the Dementia Panel and their clinical significance
|APOE||Sea-blue histiocyte disease, Dysbetalipoproteinemia, familial (Hyperlipoproteinemia), Lipoprotein glomerulopathy||AD/AR||31||55|
|APP||Alzheimer disease, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy||AD/AR||18||100|
|CHMP2B||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, CHMP2B-related, Frontotemporal dementia||AD||6||21|
|CSF1R||Leukoencephalopathy, diffuse hereditary, with spheroids||AD||56||83|
|FUS||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Essential tremor||AD/AR||22||111|
|GRN||Frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP43 inclusions, GRN-related, Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis||AD/AR||43||214|
|MAPT||Pick disease, Frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson-dementia syndrome, Supranuclear palsy, progressive||AD/AR||26||104|
|PRNP||Dementia, Lewy body, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Huntington disease-like, Gerstmann-Straussler disease, Spongiform encephalopathy with neuropsychiatric features, Insomnia, fatal familial||AD/AR||26||104|
|PSEN1||Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Acne inversa, familial, 3, Dementia, frontotemporal, Pick disease, Alzheimer disease||AD||57||306|
|PSEN2||Peripartum/pregnancy-associated cardiomyopathy, Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), Alzheimer disease, 4||AD||9||60|
|RNF216*||Cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (Gordon Holmes syndrome)||AR||10||14|
|SIGMAR1||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Spinal muscular atrophy, distal, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration-motor neuron disease||AR||6||14|
|SNCA||Parkinson disease, Dementia with Lewy bodies||AD||7||35|
|SORL1||Early-onset Alzheimer disease||AD||3||134|
|TARDBP*||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis||AD||20||69|
|TREM2||Nasu-Hakola disease, Early-onset dementia without bone cysts, Polycystic lipomembranous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy||AR||14||48|
|TUBA4A||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 22||AD||6||13|
|UBQLN2||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis||XL||5||31|
|VCP||Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Inclusion body myopathy with early-onset Paget disease, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease||AD||17||61|
* Some, or all, of the gene is duplicated in the genome. Read more.
# The gene has suboptimal coverage (means <90% of the gene’s target nucleotides are covered at >20x with mapping quality score (MQ>20) reads), and/or the gene has exons listed under Test limitations section that are not included in the panel as they are not sufficiently covered with high quality sequence reads.
The sensitivity to detect variants may be limited in genes marked with an asterisk (*) or number sign (#)
Gene refers to the HGNC approved gene symbol; Inheritance refers to inheritance patterns such as autosomal dominant (AD), autosomal recessive (AR), X-linked (XL), X-linked dominant (XLD) and X-linked recessive (XLR); ClinVar refers to the number of variants in the gene classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic in this database (ClinVar); HGMD refers to the number of variants with possible disease association in the gene listed in Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The list of associated, gene specific phenotypes are generated from CGD or Orphanet databases.
Non-coding variants covered by Dementia Panel
|Gene||Genomic location HG19||HGVS||RefSeq||RS-number|
Added and removed genes from the panel
|Genes added||Genes removed|
The APOE E4/E4 haplotype is reported if identified on this panel.
- CAP accredited laboratory
- CLIA-certified personnel performing clinical testing in a CLIA-certified laboratory
- Powerful sequencing technologies, advanced target enrichment methods and precision bioinformatics pipelines ensure superior analytical performance
- Careful construction of clinically effective and scientifically justified gene panels
- Our Nucleus online portal providing transparent and easy access to quality and performance data at the patient level
- Our publicly available analytic validation demonstrating complete details of test performance
- ~2,000 non-coding disease causing variants in our clinical grade NGS assay for panels (please see ‘Non-coding disease causing variants covered by this panel’ in the Panel Content section)
- Our rigorous variant classification scheme
- Our systematic clinical interpretation workflow using proprietary software enabling accurate and traceable processing of NGS data
- Our comprehensive clinical statements
Genes with partial, or whole gene, segmental duplications in the human genome are marked with an asterisk (*) if they overlap with the UCSC pseudogene regions. The technology may have limited sensitivity to detect variants in genes marked with these symbols (please see the Panel content table above).
- Complex inversions
- Gene conversions
- Balanced translocations
- Mitochondrial DNA variants
- Repeat expansion disorders unless specifically mentioned
- Non-coding variants deeper than ±20 base pairs from exon-intron boundary unless otherwise indicated (please see above Panel Content / non-coding variants covered by the panel).
- Low level mosaicism (variant with a minor allele fraction of 14.6% is detected with 90% probability)
- Stretches of mononucleotide repeats
- Indels larger than 50bp
- Single exon deletions or duplications
- Variants within pseudogene regions/duplicated segments
The sensitivity of this test may be reduced if DNA is extracted by a laboratory other than Blueprint Genetics.
For additional information, please refer to the Test performance section and see our Analytic Validation.
The genes on the panel have been carefully selected based on scientific literature, mutation databases and our experience.
Our panels are sectioned from our high-quality, clinical grade NGS assay. Please see our sequencing and detection performance table for details regarding our ability to detect different types of alterations (Table).
Assays have been validated for various sample types including EDTA-blood, isolated DNA (excluding from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue), saliva and dry blood spots (filter cards). These sample types were selected in order to maximize the likelihood for high-quality DNA yield. The diagnostic yield varies depending on the assay used, referring healthcare professional, hospital and country. Plus analysis increases the likelihood of finding a genetic diagnosis for your patient, as large deletions and duplications cannot be detected using sequence analysis alone. Blueprint Genetics’ Plus Analysis is a combination of both sequencing and deletion/duplication (copy number variant (CNV)) analysis.
Performance of Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay for panels.
|Sensitivity % (TP/(TP+FN)||Specificity %|
|Single nucleotide variants||99.89% (99,153/99,266)||>99.9999%|
|Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis|
|1-10 bps||99.2% (7,745/7,806)||>99.9999%|
|11-50 bps||99.13% (2,524/2,546)||>99.9999%|
|Copy number variants (exon level dels/dups)|
|1 exon level deletion (heterozygous)||100% (20/20)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (homozygous)||100% (5/5)||NA|
|1 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (25/25)||NA|
|2-7 exon level deletion (het or homo)||100% (44/44)||NA|
|1-9 exon level duplication (het or homo)||75% (6/8)||NA|
|Simulated CNV detection|
|5 exons level deletion/duplication||98.7%||100.00%|
|Size range (0.1-47 Mb)||100% (25/25)|
|The performance presented above reached by Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay with the following coverage metrics|
|Mean sequencing depth||143X|
|Nucleotides with >20x sequencing coverage (%)||99.86%|
The target region for each gene includes coding exons and ±20 base pairs from the exon-intron boundary. In addition, the panel includes non-coding and regulatory variants if listed above (Non-coding variants covered by the panel). Some regions of the gene(s) may be removed from the panel if specifically mentioned in the ‘Test limitations” section above. The sequencing data generated in our laboratory is analyzed with our proprietary data analysis and annotation pipeline, integrating state-of-the art algorithms and industry-standard software solutions. Incorporation of rigorous quality control steps throughout the workflow of the pipeline ensures the consistency, validity and accuracy of results. Our pipeline is streamlined to maximize sensitivity without sacrificing specificity. We have incorporated a number of reference population databases and mutation databases including, but not limited, to 1000 Genomes Project, gnomAD, ClinVar and HGMD into our clinical interpretation software to make the process effective and efficient. For missense variants, in silico variant prediction tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen, MutationTaster are used to assist with variant classification. Through our online ordering and statement reporting system, Nucleus, ordering providers have access to the details of the analysis, including patient specific sequencing metrics, a gene level coverage plot and a list of regions with <20X sequencing depth if applicable. This reflects our mission to build fully transparent diagnostics where ordering providers can easily visualize the crucial details of the analysis process.
We provide customers with the most comprehensive clinical report available on the market. Clinical interpretation requires a fundamental understanding of clinical genetics and genetic principles. At Blueprint Genetics, our PhD molecular geneticists, medical geneticists and clinical consultants prepare the clinical statement together by evaluating the identified variants in the context of the phenotypic information provided in the requisition form. Our goal is to provide clinically meaningful statements that are understandable for all medical professionals regardless of whether they have formal training in genetics.
Variant classification is the corner stone of clinical interpretation and resulting patient management decisions. Our classifications follow the Blueprint Genetics Variant Classification Schemes based on the ACMG guideline 2015. Minor modifications were made to increase reproducibility of the variant classification and improve the clinical validity of the report. Our experience with tens of thousands of clinical cases analyzed at our laboratory allowed us to further develop the industry standard.
The final step in the analysis is orthogonal confirmation. Sequence variants classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic and variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are confirmed using bi-directional Sanger sequencing when they do not meet our stringent NGS quality metrics for a true positive call. Reported heterozygous and homo/hemizygous copy number variations with a size <10 and <3 target exons are confirmed by orthogonal methods such as qPCR if the specific CNV has been seen and confirmed less than three times at Blueprint Genetics.
Our clinical statement includes tables for sequencing and copy number variants that include basic variant information (genomic coordinates, HGVS nomenclature, zygosity, allele frequencies, in silico predictions, OMIM phenotypes and classification of the variant). In addition, the statement includes detailed descriptions of the variant, gene and phenotype(s) including the role of the specific gene in human disease, the mutation profile, information about the gene’s variation in population cohorts and detailed information about related phenotypes. We also provide links to the references, abstracts and variant databases used to help ordering providers further evaluate the reported findings if desired. The conclusion summarizes all of the existing information and provides our rationale for the classification of the variant.
Identification of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in dominant disorders or their combinations in different alleles in recessive disorders are considered molecular confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. In these cases, family member testing can be used for risk stratification. We do not recommend using variants of uncertain significance (VUS) for family member risk stratification or patient management. Genetic counseling is recommended.
Our interpretation team analyzes millions of variants from thousands of individuals with rare diseases. Our internal database and our understanding of variants and related phenotypes increases with every case analyzed. Our laboratory is therefore well-positioned to re-classify previously reported variants as new information becomes available. If a variant previously reported by Blueprint Genetics is re-classified, our laboratory will issue a follow-up statement to the original ordering health care provider at no additional cost.