Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Jun;170(6):1433-8. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37596. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
We report a 10-year-old girl presenting with severe neonatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), feeding difficulties, mildly abnormal facial features, and progressive skeletal muscle symptoms but with normal cognitive development. Targeted oligonucleotide-selective sequencing of 101 cardiomyopathy genes revealed the genetic diagnosis, and the mutation was verified by Sanger sequencing in the patient and her parents. To offer insights into the potential mechanism of patient mutation, protein structural analysis was performed using the resolved structure of human activated HRAS protein with bound GTP analogue (PDB id 5P21) in Discovery Studio 4.5 (Dassault Systèmes Biovia, San Diego, CA). The patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and normal cognitive development was diagnosed with an HRAS mutation c.173C>T (p.T58I), a milder variant of Costello syndrome affecting a highly conserved amino acid, threonine 58. Our analysis suggests that the p.G12 mutations slow GTP hydrolysis rendering HRAS unresponsive to GTPase activating proteins, and resulting in permanently active state. The p.T58I mutation likely affects binding of guanidine-nucleotide-exchange factors, thereby promoting the active state but also allowing for slow inactivation. Patients with the HRAS mutation c.173C>T (p.T58I) might go undiagnosed because of the milder phenotype compared with other mutations causing Costello syndrome. We expand the clinical and molecular picture of the rare HRAS mutation by reporting the first case in Europe and the fourth case in the literature. Our protein structure analysis offers insights into the mechanism of the mildly activating p.T58I mutation.
Hiippala A, Vasilescu C, Tallila J, Alastalo TP, Paetau A, Tyni T, Suomalainen A, Euro L, Ojala T.